Book Marketing, Author Publicity, Branding

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Identifying the Target Audience for Your Book

You have written a book, and now you’re set to launch your marketing plan and schedule a book tour, right?  Well, not so fast.  Have you considered who your target audience is for your book? 

One of the biggest mistakes that authors make is assuming that “everybody” will want to read their book.  No book is for everybody.  If you take one thing away from this particular article, keep that one at the front of your mind:  No book is for everybody. 

Books come in many different genres, and readers have their favorites.  I like to read non-fiction history books, while my wife likes to read romance novels.  If an author of a romance novel was trying to reach me as a member of their target audience, they would fail because I’ll likely never buy a romance novel (unless it’s a gift for my wife, but she only reads romances written by her favorite authors). 

Before I got into the publishing industry, I worked as a radio announcer.  The most successful radio stations I worked at were those that realized that not everyone who listens to the radio listens to their particular station.  People have their favorite types of music.  Someone who likes rock music isn’t going to listen to a country station.  Someone who favors rock of the 50’s and 60’s isn’t going to want to listen to a rock station that plays only 80’s hair metal.  With that in mind, the radio station targeted people of a certain age group. 

We even went so far as to find pictures of people from magazines who represented our “average listener” and taped them on the wall in the radio studio to help us keep in mind who the target audience was for our station.  At one station where I worked, we taped a photo of a soccer mom in her 30’s with a husband and two kids on the studio wall, because our research had shown that was the target audience for the type of music we were playing, and our advertising was aimed at that audience.  We didn’t try to please everybody with our radio station; just our target audience.

That is exactly the type of approach authors need to take before formulating their marketing plan for their book.  You can’t please everybody with your book; just your target audience. 

Yet, many authors decide that their book can’t or won’t be a success unless they are doing a book signing in a big box bookstore whose target audience is…everybody.  The problem is if you have written a historical fiction novel and only one out of 100 people who walk through the front door of the bookstore are interested in historical fiction, you aren’t going to move many books if you are only relying on the store's regular foot traffic. 

How do you determine the target audience for your book?  Let’s illustrate it this way.  We’ll assume you have written a novel about a family torn apart during the Civil War, and two brothers find themselves on opposite sides; one fights for the Union, while the other fights for the Confederacy. 

Initially, you may want to target everybody who buys books.  For our purposes, we’ll use this photo to represent the audience you may be tempted to target from the outset:

But, this may better reflect the number of people who are actually interested in historical fiction:

Going even further, this may be a more accurate portrayal of the number of people from this group who are interested in historical fiction that focuses on the Civil War:

If your marketing efforts are focused entirely on reaching everyone in the first photo, your message is going to fall on deaf ears.   Most of those people are not interested in a historical novel set during the Civil War.   You will be spending a lot of time, effort and energy trying to reach a massive group of people who aren’t receptive to what you are trying to sell them. 

You may interest a few people in the second photo, but again you will be wasting a lot of time trying to target people that are never going to buy a book like yours for as long as they have a nose in the middle of their face. 

If you identify your target audience, those folks in the third photo, and you are only spending your time doing the things that will reach them and let them know about your book from the very beginning, you are actually going to be a lot more successful.  These are the people that are going to attend your book signing events and speaking engagements, and more importantly…buy your book.  Not only that, but they are going to let their like-minded friends know about your book, too (if they really like it and want to recommend it).  In turn, those friends will then let their acquaintances know about the book, and so on and so forth until larger groups of people know about and are buying your book, but they are the RIGHT groups of people…those most interested in a book like yours.  They are your target audience, and your sales and exposure will grow with word of mouth among those in that target group. 

You may be thinking “If I target that huge mob of people in the first photo from the start, surely at least a few of them will be interested in my book.”   That may be true, but what if the people in the third photo are not among those in the first photo?  Any author who has participated in a sparsely-attended book signing event and sold 1 or 2 books can tell you that they would have much rather had everyone in the third photo (their target audience) walk into the event and buy their book than all of the people in the first or second photo walk through the doors of the bookstore and walk past their table without giving their book a second glance.   

Going after “everyone” in the book buying public is a lot like playing the lottery and buying hundreds or thousands of tickets, hoping just one or two of them might be a winner.  By focusing your efforts on the groups of people who would be most interested in the type of book you have written, you will basically be taking that lottery ticket money and putting it in a savings account instead.  While the potential reward of the lottery is much larger, success is elusive and rare.  Putting a few bucks in the bank may not guarantee a huge reward right away, but it will pay off consistently over time. 

Try this exercise for determining the target audience for your book.  First, draw an inverted pyramid on a piece of paper:

The top line represents the largest group of people who might possible be remotely interested in your book.  The second line is the genre for your book.  The third line is the particular subject of your book.  The fourth line represents the groups of people that might be interested in that particular subject, and the last and smallest line of the pyramid represents the exact type of person that might be interested in your particular book. 

Now let’s put the pyramid into practice, using a Christian book as an example:

1st line:  Christians
2nd line:  Bible study book
3rd line:  What the Bible says about grieving
4th line:  People who have experienced loss
5th line:  Someone who has recently experienced the loss of a loved one or is trying to come to terms with their grief. 

Using this inverted pyramid example, we can see that if we only targeted Christians, we’d be shooting for a very broad group of people.  This particular book is focused on the teachings of the Bible as it relates to grieving, and the target audience is people who are trying to cope with their grief.  If you start out your promotional efforts targeting only Christians, and not necessarily those interested in a Bible study book, particularly a person interested in reading books about coping with grief, you’ll miss your target and you’ll expend a lot of energy reaching out to the wrong readers. 

Let’s say the author of this book was only doing book signings at Christian bookstores, just hoping to catch a customer walking through the door looking for a book just like their grieving book.  They may sell a couple of books.  However, if that same author sent notices to local Bible study groups or grieving support groups to let them know about their book signing, more of those people walking through the door of the Christian bookstore may be looking for exactly that type of book.  Remember, you’re trying to reach the pointy end of the pyramid, not the wide end of the pyramid, at least at the beginning. 

The books that become hugely successful are those that start at the small end of the pyramid and work their way up.  That comes as word about the book spreads amongst the small target audience and up through the larger groups of people at the wider ends of the pyramid.

It may seem counter-intuitive to only reach out to smaller groups of people at first, but these are the people that are going to be most passionate about a book like yours.  They are going to be the evangelists for your book, and they are the people who are going to be spreading the word-of mouth that your book needs to be a success.

Thursday, March 23, 2017

How Will You Sell Your Book?

For many authors, thoughts of where and how to sell their books don't come to mind until the manuscript is finished and sent off to the publisher, or when a release date has been set for the book. After all, the book has to come first, right?

Certainly, writing a good book is essential for its sales prospects, but if you are waiting until you are holding a printed copy in your hand before you start thinking about the best means of marketing and promoting your book, you could already be handicapping its chances in the marketplace, and hampering your chances to sell more books.

In fact, for many successful authors, the best time to think about potential markets for a book isn't when the final touches are being put on it in editing, or when the book has been sent to the printer, or even while the book is being written. No, the best time to think about the marketing potential for a book is before you start writing the book in the first place.

When you write a book, you are essentially starting a new business. The author is the brand, and the book is the product. Like when starting any good, viable business, a bit of research has to go into it first before just deciding the launch. Not every business idea is a good business idea, and not every book idea is a good book idea. If 80 percent of all businesses fail in the first year, the same holds true if not more so for books.

Does that mean you shouldn't bother writing the book in the first place? Before you can answer that question, you have to answer a few questions first, just like you would when starting a business.

Does a market exist for the business (book)?
How much competition is there in the marketplace?
Does the book solve a problem or appeal to particular niche?
Who is the audience for the book?
How would I reach that audience?

Many authors mistakenly believe that these are questions a publisher should primarily be concerned about, and while they are, the author has to be able to easily answer these questions because even if they have a publisher, much of the promotional activity is going to fall squarely on their shoulders. The publisher may offer some marketing assistance, but that is usually short-lived until they move on to the next project, especially if the book doesn't ring up a significant amount of sales within a short period of time after the book's release date. If the book is self-published, then the answers to these questions become even more important.

So, how does an author go about finding out if their idea for a book is one which will ultimately be profitable? This will require a bit of market research. Of course, if you query a publisher and they jump at the chance to publish your manuscript, then you have a pretty good idea that your book is one that they are confident they can sell. However, if you can confidently answer the questions above, that makes your chances of your book being picked up even better, and if you self-publish, you'll be saving yourself a lot of time down the road when it's time to market your book.

Does a market exist for the book? Check out online booksellers and physical bookstores. Do they carry many other titles that fit in the genre of the book you want to write? How are they selling? Are they featured prominently on the site or in the store, or are they sitting in the bargain bin or being made available as free or cheap downloads? Can you find other titles that are similar to the book you are thinking of writing that have done very well, or are even current bestselling titles?

How much competition is there in the marketplace? If you are finding other titles similar to the book you are thinking of writing, or that you have already started writing, and they are selling very well, then you probably have a viable project on your hands. Look a the Young Adult book marketing, for example. Once the Twilight series of book become very successful, similar titles (and movies) followed, all featuring young people facing extraordinary circumstances: Divergent, The Hunger Games, The Maze Runner, etc. All were developed into a book series, and all were targeted to the same demographic (audience). Some view competition as a bad thing, because that might indicated a crowded marketplace, but publishers...and the book-buying to gravitated toward a familiar, proven concept. If your book idea is utterly alone and there are literally no other books like it in the marketplace, it could mean you are a trendsetter, but it could also mean no market exists for your book.

Does the book solve a problem or appeal to a particular niche? To determine if you are the trendsetter or the author facing the prospect of having no audience for your book, you'll have to dig a bit deeper than looking for titles similar to yours? Do some creative Googling online for topics related to your book idea or book-in-progress. If you are writing a reference book for 19th Century watch repair and there are no other books like it around, but you see there are blogs, message boards, Facebook groups and Twitter pages dedicated to the topic and these resources serve tens of thousand of people, you might be on to something. That's an under-served audience that would probably jump at the chance to read a book like yours (and those would be great places to start building an audience for your book). If, on the other hand, there is the equivalent of electronic tumbleweeds blowing across the screen when you look up these topics, you might be trying to serve a need where none exists, and no amount of book publicity is going to overcome that problem.

Who is the audience for the book? When I worked in the publishing industry, this was always one of the first questions I asked authors once it was time for me to start working with them on marketing and promoting their books. If the author wasn't sure who the audience for their book was, it didn't make my job impossible, but it made it much more difficult. An author has to be clear on the audience they are trying to serve, and that clarity should probably be present when they are writing their book. Authors write because they love to write, but they don't just write for themselves, they write for readers. For non-fiction authors, answering this question is probably easier than it is for novelists, but most successful writers know who their following is. Mary Higgins Clark appeals primarily to women, James Patterson writes books for mystery lovers, Stephen King writes books for those who love horror stories. Sometimes, writers will stray from their genre and write a completely different type of book and may even write under a different pen name, but they typically write with a particular kind of reader in mind.

How would I reach that audience? We touched on this a bit above, but during your market research on your book idea, you are going to come across many groups, message boards, social media pages, web sites, and organizations that are dedicated to the topic or genre of your book. Take note of these, because this is where you are going to find members of your audience, even if you already have your own following as a writer. You don't want to join a Facebook page and just start blasting “buy my upcoming book” all over it, but you can certainly join and engage the audience, answer questions, provide value and be an active member of the community. If you find several blogs dedicated to your book's topic, offer to write guest posts, or host guest posts from those bloggers on your blog, but make these folks your friends, because when it comes time to release your book, these folks will be your biggest champions and cheerleaders. If you wait until your book is released before you start putting in the work of audience-building, you'll be starting from scratch. If you have a strategy for reaching this audience and you can detail the type and size of the potential audience, as well as how you would reach that audience, to a publisher or potential publisher, then you'll not only increase your chances of getting published but you'll have a pretty good target to hit when it's time to plan the launch of your book.

Of course, it's not always about book sales, and I'm not trying to discourage anyone from writing that novel they have always wanted to finish. However, if you are trying to make your writing a career, and not just a hobby, never forget that publishing is a business. It's easier than ever to get published, but more difficult to sell books in large quantities, especially if you aren't clear on your audience and how you will reach them.

If you have already finished your book and need help determining your audience and the best way to reach them, fill out the contact form at the bottom of this site and we can help you launch (or re-launch) your book to eager and waiting readers!

Saturday, March 4, 2017!

After taking a hiatus from writing my personal marketing and promotions blog for authors, I am working on updating and revamping the information on it.   You'll notice some new blog posts and some updates on older posts.   If there are any book marketing topics you would like to see covered here, let me know!  


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